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What is Menopause?

The end of a woman’s menstrual cycle is called menopause. When a woman has gone 12 months without a menstrual period, menopause is diagnosed. Usually, menopause starts between the ages of 47 to 55 years, 51 being the average. In some women, it may start earlier due to underlying medical conditions or previous surgeries.

There are three stages of menopause –

  • Perimenopause – The transitional time before menopause is called perimenopause. This includes the 12 months after a woman’s last period.
  • Menopause When it has been 12 months since a woman’s last period or when menstruation stops due to a clinical reason such as removal of the ovaries, it is called menopause.
  • Postmenopause – The years after menopause is referred to as postmenopause. 

Causes

Menopause can occur due to various reasons, such as –

  • The natural decline in reproductive hormones – The ovaries start to produce less progesterone and estrogen, the hormones are responsible for regulating menstruation, as you approach your late 30s. Due to this, fertility declines. Eventually, the ovaries stop releasing eggs and periods stop.
  • Oophorectomy – Oophorectomy is the surgery to remove the ovaries. This leads to immediate menopause as your periods would stop once the ovaries are removed.
  • Primary ovarian insufficiency – Around 1% of all women experience premature menopause, which is menopause before the age of 40. Generally, there is no exact cause of premature menopause but it can be attributed to the ovaries not producing normal levels of reproductive hormones known as primary ovarian insufficiency. This might be due to autoimmune disease or genetic factors.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation – Radiation and chemotherapy are cancer treatments that can induce menopause. 

Symptoms

Early menopause symptoms include –

  • Vaginal dryness
  • Urinary urgency
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Hot flashes
  • Breast tenderness
  • Fatigue
  • Irregular periods 

Sometimes, women may experience heavy bleeding during menopause. This might be due to the uterine lining building up. Uterine lining might build-up due to high levels of estrogen or a skipped period. Some women experience bleeding after menopause. This is not normal and you should consult your doctor immediately as it could indicate endometrial cancer or some other complication.

Vaginal Infections Treatment

Vaginitis (Vaginal Infections) is the infection or inflammation of your vagina. It is usually caused by yeast and bacteria imbalances found in the vaginal tract.
You may also smell something different as well as feeling uncomfortable. It is possible to get an infection from bacteria, yeast, or a virus. As the skin and tissues in the vagina are so delicate, chemicals found in soaps, sprays, and clothing could cause irritation.
Sometimes it’s difficult to understand what’s happening. Dr. Rajani, the best Gynecologist in Hanamkoda who works at Mahi Hospitals, says that the right treatment for vaginal infection can be suggested if you have to seek the help of an expert doctor.

Types and Causes of Vaginitis

There are various conditions that can cause vaginal infections. Some of the most common are:

Bacterial vaginosis: This type of vaginal inflammation is caused by the overgrowth of certain bacteria found in the vagina. Normally, it gives off a strong-smelling fishy odour.

Candida or “yeast” infection: It is caused by fungus candida overgrowth in the vagina though it is found in very small amounts.

Chlamydia: It is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STI) in women of age between 18 and 35 particularly those who do sex with multiple partners.

Gonorrhoea: It is another common STI and frequently occurs with chlamydia.

Trichomoniasis: it is a type of infection that is caused by a parasite and spread by sex. You are also at an increased risk of getting other STIs.

Viral vaginitis: It is another type of vaginal inflammation caused by certain viruses that spread through sexual contacts like herpes simplex. virus (HSV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). It is painful when warts or sores appear on the genitals.

In some cases, the exact cause of vaginal infection is not known, then it is called nonspecific vulvovaginitis.

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